II John

Unlike I John, which was written as a public document to be circulated among groups of churches, II John is directed to a specific local church.  It is written as a personal letter rather than as a treatise.  Interestingly, it basically summarizes the message of I John.  Many of the same themes appear and warnings […]

I John 4:1-6

John uses his discussion of assurance through the Holy Spirit in 3:24 as a launching point to instruct his readers about spiritual discernment.  In an age where the New Testament does not yet exist and the church is dependent on oral communication, it is imperative that the church identify which teachers are truly Spirit-led and […]

I John 2:18-28

For the first time, John confronts the heresy within the churches directly.  Up to this point he has mostly defended the faith and discussed tests of the faith that the heretics fail.  He now directly addresses the teaching and actions of the ones who have attacked the gospel and disrupted his churches.  We get to […]